Some of the world’s biggest car manufacturers have failed to sign a pledge committing to make all new vehicles zero emissions by 2040.

Toyota, Volkswagen, Stellantis and Hyundai do not appear on the list of signatories to the Glasgow Declaration on Zero Emission Cars and Vans, unveiled at the COP26 climate talks last week.

The declaration was backed by over 100 signatories, including carmakers Volvo, Ford, Mercedes-Benz and Jaguar Land Rover, as well as 33 national governments, regional authorities and companies including rideshare service Uber.

The non-binding pledge commits its signatories to making electric vehicles the “new normal” and to “supporting a global, equitable and just transition so that no country or community is left behind”.

Environmental groups responding to the announcement warned that stronger action would be needed to cut transport emissions and keep global warming under 1.5C.

Environmental charity Greenpeace branded the declaration “disappointingly weak”. “What’s gravely concerning today is that major economies like the US, Germany, China, Japan and manufacturers like VW, Toyota and Hyundai could not even bring themselves to sign a declaration on electric vehicles that promises less than what’s actually required to maintain climate security,” said Greenpeace Germany’s executive director Martin Kaiser.